Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Research and Practice, Dhaka, Bangladesh (2019)

ISBN: 978-0-6482681-3-0

Abstract: Modern day urban construction activities are largely carried out adjacent to existing buildings due to scarcity of land for construction. In order to utilise the available land in the most efficient way, often high-rise buildings are constructed necessitating pile foundations to transfer large design loads to strong and deep soil layers below the ground surface. Although a number of methods are available to install pile foundations, in urban areas several factors need to be taken into consideration when selecting the suitable method. Due to the proximity of new and existing structures, noise disturbance and damages to existing nearby structures resulting from pile installation should be kept to a minimum. In that respect, vibratory pile driving is the most suitable pile installation method for urban construction activities. However, ground vibrations induced by vibratory pile driving may cause damages to existing structures depending on the proximity and sensitivity of the structure. Hence, it is necessary to take proper mitigation measures against vibratory pile driving induced ground vibrations. A possible remedy is to use in-filled wave barriers with concrete, bentonite, water or expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam, which can diminish the construction induced vibrations. EPS geofoam offers a number of advantages over other fill materials because of its light weight, cost effectiveness, energy absorbing characteristics, efficiency in terms of construction time and ease of handling. There have been many research studies carried out to investigate the mechanical behaviour of EPS geofoam. However, the full potential of EPS geofoam is yet to be realised. Therefore this thesis aims to investigate the severity of ground vibrations induced by vibratory pile driving and effectiveness of EPS geofoam wave barriers in protecting nearby structures. These investigations are carried out using both two- and three-dimensional finite element models developed based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian approach. They are discretised in both space and time to capture the wave propagation within ground. Download

Abstract: Empty tubular joints are commonly used in the construction of bridges, towers, stadia, offshore structures and road traffic sign supports among other applications. In recent years, the construction of long span bridges and high towers has seen a modified use of tubulars structures resulting in concrete-filling of the main chords. This has been found to both reduce stresses at the weld toes of the joints thereby reducing the risk of fatigue failure and also increase the static strength of the joints. The design of empty tubular joints is comprehensively covered by existing standards. On the other hand, the design of tubular joints with concrete-filled chords is not commonly covered by existing standards due to lack of research data. This presentation will discuss research that has been recently carried out on tubular joints with concrete-filled chords. Research includes behaviour of tubular joints made up of square hollow sections (SHS), rectangular hollow sections (RHS) and circular hollow sections (CHS). Different types of connections have been tested under various types of loading. This paper will mostly focus on recent research on CHS-CHS joints. Download

Abstract: In this paper, an overview of the effective techniques for wireless power transmission (WPT) currently being utilised will be presented. Short-, medium- and long-range WPT technologies based on inductive coupling and radio-frequency (RF) principles (near-field and far-field) will be outlined. With the recent release of wirelessly rechargeable mobile phones, it is expected that the use of rechargeable platforms in the consumer electronics market will rapidly expand. After describing the historical development of WPT technologies and techniques, I will focus on recent advances in WPT for microwave wireless power transmission in implantable medical applications and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Download

Abstract: Since early 70's there have been several breakthroughs in the field of algorithms. With Stephen Cook's recognition of the first ever NP-complete problem in SATISFIABILITY problem. This has given answer to an important question that there may not exist efficient algorithms for all problems. Theory of NP-completeness gave us the courage to predict that LP problem should not belong to the class of NP-complete problems since its dual also belongs to the same class, whereas dual of NP-complete problem is expected to be harder. In 1979 Russian mathematician Khachian formulated the first ever polynomial time algorithm Ellipsoid algorithm for solving LP problems. In 1984 Narendra Karmarkar designed a more efficient polynomial time algorithm called Projective algorithm for solving LP, although none of these algorithms appear more effective than Simplex algorithm for the size of problems we face in practice. Another problem that frustrated scientific community for thousands of years is .a polynomial time deterministic algorithm for primality testing. Professor Agrawal of IIT Kanpur with his undergraduate students developed such an algorithm, although unfortunately this algorithm is yet to be applied for testing 200/300 digit long primes that are needed for encryption and decryption purposes. The paper discusses some of the important problems that are still awaiting solution. Download

Abstract: Excessive settlements and lateral movements at bridge approach embankments and piles have often been a major problem when constructed over thick soft clays. Dry Deep Soil Mixed (DSM) columns with full depths and floating configurations were installed into soft clays to reduce such settlements and lateral movements at various bridge approaches of a major project in northern NSW Australia. This paper presents the analyses and design procedures of DSM columns ground treatment, and its performances obtained from field instrumentation monitoring results including total settlements and lateral movements for a bridge approach embankments of the project. Construction quality control issues of DSM columns have also been discussed. Field monitoring results showed that the settlement and lateral movement of soft clay treated with DSM columns reduced significantly. The results also revealed that observed settlement was lower than the predicted values both in the full depth and floating DSM columns areas. DSM columns ground improvement technique provided a cost effective solution that allowed embankments and bridge piles to be constructed in short time periods, and met design settlement and lateral movement requirements at the bridge approach embankments and piles. Quality Assessment (QA) results obtained from field trial and production columns suggested that both strength and stiffness met the intended design criteria. Download

Abstract: Growth in human population, economic prosperity and technological innovation has placed enormous pressure on the environment and natural resources through increased consumption of energy and resources. Reducing waste, reusing and recycling resources in every sector is the key for a sustainable future. Road construction and maintenance practices play a significant role towards sustainability due to the requirements of sheer volume of construction materials and energy consumptions. Developed countries such as America, Australia and in Europe have implemented a number of initiatives towards sustainability in road construction practices.
Road constructions in Australia, in particular, utilise recycled materials as much as possible. These materials include recycled pavement materials, glass bottles, vehicle tyres, printer cartridges, etc. Pavement design principles such as perpetual pavement and the use of high modulus asphalt pavement are being trialled. Additionally, the use of locally available non-standard materials and improving existing weaker subgrades are increasingly being considered for rural roads on major freight routes.
Sustainability in road construction in Bangladesh is also gaining momentum. For example, Roads and Highways Department (RHD) has implemented cement stabilised base in its pavement design guide. The use of crumb rubber, plastic road and Japan’s twister technology to improve existing soil properties are also being considered. However, highways and major roads in Bangladesh are similar to Australia’s rural roads of unbound granular pavements in terms of pavement profile, subgrade soil and climate. Hence sustainable construction practices successfully implemented in Australia can be considered for major roads Bangladesh. Download

Abstract: In case of roundabouts in Dhaka city, the basic design criterion of ensuring non-signalized and smooth traffic flow around a central island often fails due to the habitual apathy of the road users especially drivers, towards obeying the rudimentary traffic rules, unless mandated by traffic police. As a result, at present most of the roundabouts in the city are either signalized or prone to haphazard precarious manoeuvring. So, to ensure smooth traffic flow, the obstinate drivers need to be disciplined by a rational design of a roundabout with especial physical features that will enforce traffic rule abidance without any supervision. This study proposes a radical channelized design of a five legged intersection that will prioritize the circulating flow, ensure safety and increase efficacy without requiring any traffic supervision. For the purpose of design, extensive traffic volume data has been collected from the test site (Polashi five legged intersection). The predilection of the road users to violate traffic rules is underscored in the design consideration and the proposed roundabout includes innovative physical traffic control. Using intersection modeling software SIDRA, it has been found that the proposed design is potential of significantly increasing the level of service of the approach roads at the intersection. This roundabout upholds its individuality by compelling its users to comply with the traffic rules without requiring any constant supervision. Download

Abstract: The fuel deficiency and carbon emissions from the traditional power plants have pursued moving to renewable energy sources (RES) power generation. The RES generation relies on weather conditions so the integration of RES with current power generation systems is essential to minimize the energy problems. This study proposes a new binary lightning search algorithm (BLSA) for the best scheduling controller employed to IEEE 14 bus system for regulating distributed generators (DGs) in smart grids (SGs). BLSA optimisation technique presents the optimal fitness function for identifying the best cell to produce the best schedule. The fitness function is developed considering real circumstances of solar radiation, wind speed, battery status and demand of the particular time. The attained results of BLSA are compared with the conventional optimization technique with regard to the fitness function, cost and power saving. The proposed BLSA optimization technique decreases the power production cost and incorporates preference-based DGs into the grid. Thus, the optimal scheduling can facilitate effective coordination of DGs into the grid by offsetting their uncertainty. Download

Abstract: Ride sharing is recognized as special transportation services with more flexibility and availability in selected routes operated by private companies and individuals. This study was aimed to explore user’s perception of ride sharing in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey was conducted in twelve different locations in Dhaka city to 700 respondents of different professions. Result shows that majority of the respondents know (have information) about ridesharing service. Most of the respondents complied to wait less than 10 minutes for a ride. Half of the respondents consider that the service should be prescheduled while they are willing to pay less than 50tk for a rideshare trip. The respondents consider ride sharing because of financial savings through shared commuting. About half of the respondents consider ride share as a safe mode. The respondents believe that if safety is ensured, they will commute more by ridesharing. The respondents perceive that ridesharing is important because it provides improved access to public transit routes, business and services with limited parking. The respondents would like to use ridesharing service as frequent as possible. Half of the respondents would like to travel less than 1 kilometer for meeting a rideshare partner. Majority of the respondents view towards service quality of rideshare is good and its major limitation is safety concern of own and belongings. In order to improve rideshare services respondents suggest establishing ridesharing with vehicles of different agency, providing parking for it, and offering guaranteed ride home. The research results will assist in recommending measures to improve the existing ride share system and to implement effective ride share with necessary modifications. Future researches need to explore constructs that could explain more divergence in individual behaviors and opinions towards the rideshare services. Download

Abstract: This paper studies the impact of multi-purpose recreational facility on sub-urban road network which will attract a substantial amount of traffic that require investigation of the access facilities to and from adjacent roads. Detailed traffic impact assessment was conducted using micro-simulation software VISSIM to develop models of various traffic scenarios, representing both the current and future traffic conditions, which were simulated for 115200 seconds in total to evaluate the network performances. Considering existing road geometry and 7.5% of traffic growth, this study showed that average delay per traffic increased from 70.25 to 159.7 seconds, nearly doubles in 20 years projection from now. Download

Abstract: Micro-simulation is a widely used and one of the most effective ways to predict traffic behaviour of urban intersections and corridors. However very few simulation models have been developed for the non-lane based heterogeneous traffic streams of the developing countries. The advanced microscopic traffic simulators like CORSIM, MATSim, PTV VISSIM, PARAMICS etc. with the in-built default characteristics do not represent the non-lane based heterogeneous traffic conditions. In this study the state- of-practice microsimulator PTV VISSIM has been used to evaluate the peak-hour traffic operating condition for non-lanebased heterogeneous traffic prevailing in a selected regional corridor of Narayanganj city. To replicate the real scenario, several local vehicles were modeled in 3D Studio-Max and converted into VISSIM recognizable vehicle element by V3DM. The model was duly calibrated using field data and validated using Geoffrey E. Heavers (GEH) statistic comparisons or GEH values and Travel time. The approximately 8.4 km Mukterpur Bridge Approach road on Dhaka-Munshiganj-Lohajong regional highway connecting Panchabati to Mukterpur Bridge has been considered as a test bed and modeled along with five major intersections. With the model the existing traffic operating condition of the selected corridor was found out. The calibrated parameters can be effectively used to build, calibrate and simulate traffic conditions of other corridors of Narayanganj city with heterogeneous non-lane based traffic streams. However, the corridor connecting Panchaboti to Mukterpur is fully developed in both sides, so implementing of any traffic solution under land constraint in this corridor is one of the difficult tasks. Several alternative options has been considered here which compiles at grade as well as grade separated solution. The effectiveness of these options is evaluated by several parameters like travel time, average delay and speeds. The best options have shown 64.9%, 377.9%, 76.5% improvement with respect to existing condition in terms of travel time, average delay and speed respectively. Download

Abstract: A solar assisted Air Conditioner (SAC) can be made using components like compressor, condenser, expansion valve and the evaporator. The power can be supplied using grid and also from the solar panel. This work gives a proof of concept of use of solar energy for saving electricity and for places where electricity is not available but AC is need. The targeted room temperature was 16 Degree Celsius to 25 Degree Celsius. A model air conditioner was designed and constructed locally. It was installed and tested to get the required temperature. An AC compressor was used, and therefore, an inverter has been used to convert the DC power to AC power. The model was tested in a 10 feet by 12 feet room for a period of one weeks in August 2018. Wind speed, ambient temperature and solar radiation intensity data were monitored and collected from scientific weather station using internet. By monitoring the temperatures and compressor current power consumption and the performance were determined. The overall performance was measured and it was normal. For the refrigerant R-22 all the necessary data has been taken and calculated practically. It is observed that the SAC is performed well for the most used refrigerant R-22. The temperature profile and pressure profile has been made using digital thermocouple and highly accurate pressure gauge to determine the room temperature and suction and discharge pressure respectively. Total power consumption per day by the SAC has been calculated. It was thus proved that a suitably sized PV system could be designed and implemented at rural areas and the areas where electricity is not available at all. This could be a great thing for a country like Bangladesh where electricity is main problem. Download

Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the liquefaction potentiality of a reclaimed area of Dhaka city due to earthquake induced forces. For this study Shapnodhara Housing in Bosila, Mohammadpur area was being selected. For the research work, six soil reports of six different points of the study area with 25 borehole data were collected. The sub soil information i.e., Standard penetration test (SPT) value at 10ft interval, unit weight, liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index and fine content has been taken from the soil report. Earthquake induce parameters like, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Importance factor of structure etc. were collected from BNBC 2006. Collected values are used for both the method Seed and Idriss (1982) and Japanese Code of Bridge Design including Chinese Criterion to determine the liquefaction potentiality of the study area. The analysis was conducted up to 60 feet depth soil of the selected area. Among the two method Seed-Idriss method showed much conservative result. Seed-Idriss method exhibits the depth of liquefiable soil 37ft to 45ft from ground level all through the selected area, whereas Japanese Code of Bridge Design including Chinese Criterion shows liquefaction in a few areas. A liquefiable soil profile of that area has been generated based on the analysis result. Download

Abstract: Increased traffic congestion in to-days urban road network warrants real-time traffic information and become a crucial issue of Advanced Traveller Information Systems for trip and travel plan. An advance travel time prediction system can help travellers, riders and transportation systems by reducing travel time and road traffic congestions through optimum trip generation. This paper presents an approach of a smart travel time prediction system for an urban road network using a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model considering the traffic flow pattern as a continuous time series. The proposed prediction systems primarily utilized the historical travel time data collected from an observation route at a certain interval through the Google Maps for a period of three 3 weeks. In order to obtain the pattern of daily traffic variation from morning to evening, data collection was set to 12 hours/day at every 5 minutes interval. The LSTM model was built on the historical data of seven road segments for one-step and multi-steps-ahead travel time predictions. The experiment results showed that the average relative prediction error of the proposed LSTM model vary between 3.81% - 11.49% for one-step-ahead prediction, and 6.49% – 8.70% for multi-step-ahead prediction. The results indicate that the proposed prediction model could provide a reliable and time-saving solution to reduce the urban traffic congestion and generate more trips for the rider in the urban road network. Download

Abstract: Accessibility to the food market and getting the all kind of food in a convenient distance is considered an important aspect. When it is a matter of residential area, it also bears more meaningful importance for accessing food in the shortest time for all ages. It is mandatory to access to the food within the range of people. There are many reasons for not accessing the food source in a safe way. The research will focus on the super shop which is a good source of all kind of food availability. As super shop Shwapno provides more than 40 outlets in Dhaka city, it also supports food accessibility to all aged people. Sometimes, it didn’t only support the community but also become dependent on the public transport system as well as the non-motorized transport system like walkability or rickshaw. The research will focus on travel flexibility and cost to reach a certain location. Using network analyst tool in Arc GIS 10.0 software to get the convenient service area of super shop outlet and even the bus stop service area. It also provides the super shop outlet outside the reach zone of public bus service and the limit is set on 1KM to 2KM. After conducting the analysis, there are six outlets which are not accessible through the public transport system. It needs private transport to reach it. So, setting up super shop food outlet in the right manner can be more efficient when it is a matter of involving urban planner to provide an efficient amount of food service for maximum people. Download

Abstract: In Bangladesh, almost all of the pharmaceutical industries import active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from other countries. Among such API, Ibuprofen is one of the most commonly used analgesic non-steroidal painkiller in our country. In this paper a techno-economic assessment of a continuous Ibuprofen API manufacturing plant is presented. The plant has a production capacity of 132 kg Ibuprofen per day with purity greater than 99%, corresponding to 27 metric ton in 200 running days per year. This will result in about 264,000 tablets in 500 mg size for consumption purposes per day. The modern green synthesis method in a continuous process following the BHC reaction pathway is selected as the production process. The necessary raw materials include isobutyl benzene, ethanol, acetic anhydride, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which will be sourced locally and some will be imported from India and China. This study includes a complete description of the process, size and cost of equipment, and an order of magnitude cost estimation and economic analysis of the process. Download

Abstract: In the last thirty years, the affordability of electric and electronic gadgets combined with high demand for new technology and the rapid growth of electronic industries has created enormous amounts of electronic waste (e-waste). The uncontrolled accumulation of e-waste is a manmade problem which has not yet been recognized as a severe threat. The problem is compounded by unlegislated dumping of the waste in countries like Bangladesh. On the other hand, as e-waste contains significant amount of valuable elements (Ti, W, Ta, Sn, Cu, Fe, Al etc.), the recycling shops of e-waste, nucleating around the suburbs of Dhaka, have been a lucrative business. However, these local shops are suffering from unhealthy conditions, with lack of technological development and awareness. This study aims to assess the potential threat to the environment and health from e-wastes by studying current recycling practices and characterizing the toxicants exposed to environment and ecology at local sources of e-waste repair and recycle. The process of informal e-waste recycling and the environmental conditions of two e-waste recycling shops, located in Science Lab and Nimtoli (Dhaka), was studied. The amount of hazardous material in the dust samples surrounding these areas was determined quantitatively and the potential health risk was found using some empirical co-relations. Download

Abstract: The influence of anchor shape on the pullout capacity of vertical plate anchor was studied using Finite Element Modelling (FEM) in PLAXIS 3D. In the study anchor capacity factor Fγ = Qu/γBHL was compared with length (L) to height (B) ratio or aspect ratio (L/B ratio) of plate anchor, where Qu is the ultimate pullout load, γ is the soil unit weight and H is the embedment depth. The study showed that, for L/B ≤ 3, with the decrease of aspect ratio, the increase of ultimate pullout capacity was significant (up to 123 %) which is similar to past experimental findings. However, for L/B > 3, with the increase of aspect ratio the reduction was not appreciable and can be neglected for L/B > 6. Also, the influence of relative density of backfill soil on pullout resistance was observed. The denser soil provided better resistance to pullout forces. Finally an approach was made to predict the spacing between anchor plates, when a group of anchors is used for practical purposes. Download

Abstract: For any city authority, it is important task to control the traffic system within the city. Finding out the shortest and cost-effective paths for the popular destinations can help to solve the problem at some extent. Least-cost path (LCP) is an important approach to determine a cost-effective route between a source and a destination. Here, the concept of shortest possible path is not always related to shortest distance between two points but in terms of least resistance. A straight line between an origin point and a destination point can indicate shortest distance between the two points, but in terms of least cost approach, a path which follows the least possible resistance values (in terms of relevant criteria) in its way to reach the destination is considered as the shortest possible path between them (Jochen, n.d.). In this paper, not only distance but also least resistant is considered to calculated the most effective routes. Khulna is a rapid growing city with a huge volume of traffic are generated there every day. Khulna University is the largest educational institution in the area that makes it one of the most popular destinations. In this context, we computed the shortest possible route to Khulna University from all the planned residential areas of Khulna City and adjacent areas using Least-cost path analysis. A GIS tool was used to model the entire process. LCP approach used two types of data for analysis. A cost raster assigns a cost (or impedance) value for each pixel based on slope and land cover type. For cost raster, Aster DEM from United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Land use Shapefile from Khulna Development Authority (KDA) master plan (2000-2020) has been used. The locations of origin and destinations were derived from Google Earth. Detail analysis revealed that all the proposed routes are efficient in time management and reducing distance. For the shortest route from Daulatpur residential area to Khulna University, the model successfully predicted the outer city bypass road. It is one of the firstest route because of being located outside the city and it will be less time consuming instead of taking any route within the city. For other destinations predicted routes of models fit into main highways and arterial roads which are normally firster than any other alternative routes and they covers the shortest possible distance. Thus, these routes can be used as the shortest possible alternatives from their origins to Khulna University. Obtained results can be a useful source of knowledge for the Urban Planners and decision-making Authorities to perform planning and decision-making activities on Traffic volume and Transportation Network related issues. Download

Abstract: This study attempts to provide GIS based allocation of efficient bus bay near bus-stops for reducing traffic congestion as a case study in Dhaka city. Five important areas namely Mirpur-10, Mirpur-1, Mohakhali, Gulshan-1 and Nilkhet bus stops were selected as the busiest bus stops of Dhaka city where haphazard stopping of buses on the streets and blocking traffic stream is very common and devoid of boarding and alighting provisions for passengers. Three types of survey were conducted. Classified traffic volume counts were done by manual counting method. A structured both end questionnaires was designed to explore the passenger opinions for bus bay, passenger journeys by public bus, number of journey per day, passengers’ problems facing during peaking and dropping etc. The boarding passengers were surveyed. Previous accident data was also collected. GIS was used to generate demonstrated traffic survey data, measuring right-of-way (ROW) width, identification of the optimal location of the bus stop, minimum distance from the intersections and general intersection. The best suitable site for a bus bay provision near the bus stop area was identified using buffer, erase, multiple to single part tool of GIS. From our analysis, it was found that actual ROW is not used for the actual purposes and encroachment prevails everywhere. Gulshan-1 bus stop was found to locate within 75 m from the intersection which is inappropriate. Mirpur-10, Nilkhet, Mirpur-1 bus stops are within the coverage area of small intersections. Only location of Mohakhali bus stop was found in the right place. At each of the bus stops boarding frequency is significantly high, more than 40. This study serves as useful strategic tools to implement bus bay in transportation planning and thereby the decision makers can escalate bus bay provision. Download

Abstract: Adequate, easy, and equitable access to urban facilities is a fundamental human right. To ensure adequate access to urban facilities, it is paramount important to urban planners to achieve equity in the distribution of such facilities. This study thus attempts to measure an integrated spatial accessibility measurement framework that contributes to the evaluation of geographic variation of spatial accessibility to urban facilities in Dhaka city corporation (DCC). This study measures integrated spatial accessibility index for urban facilities using GIS based techniques network analysis, spatial join, and summarize incorporating supply and demand for urban facilities, the travel distance or time that users are willing to cover to reach such facilities, and the interaction of residents across geographic boundaries. The obtained results indicate that there exist a variation in spatial accessibility to urban facilities. The central part of DCC area (16 wards) was found to retain higher spatial accessibility to urban facilities while the periphery was mostly covered by the wards (50 wards) with low spatial accessibility scores. Urban facilities are distributed in such a way that threefourth of total population have low spatial access to those facilities. Modelling results implicate these areas should get more priority in allocating particular types of urban facilities in future. Research findings of this study could be a useful reference to help urban planners to analyze, investigate, and adjust the distribution of urban facilities in a more equitable manner. Download

Abstract: With the captivating rise of textile industries in Bangladesh, maximum utilization of fabric and minimization of trim loss have become of severe importance. Every piece of attire consists of multiple pieces that have to be sewn together. When these pieces have to be cut out from a sheet of fabric, they have to be laid out in the most compact style possible by reducing the space between two or more pieces. The more compact a layout is, the more efficient it is in saving expensive raw material (fabric). When a set of two dimensional convex and non-convex polygons is given, a packing or nesting problem arises to fit them efficiently in a layout without overlapping or containment. Several attempts have been made to automatically generate a near-optimal layout to minimize the waste. A trade-off between runtime and optimality for this particular set of problems is always faced. In this study, bottom left heuristics and genetic algorithm were developed and applied for the packing of rectangular pieces. Both computational geometry and bottom left heuristics algorithm were incorporated for arbitrary polygonal packing. The algorithms were implemented in MATLAB and C++. The algorithm was applied for optimizing pant and shirt pieces involving arbitrary convex polygons and achieved as much as 88.34% marker efficiency. Download

Abstract: Transportation planning plays a crucial role in ensuring safe and convenient movement for both vehicular modes and passengers. Dhaka is confronted with a big challenge for transportation to cope up with its lower travel speed, higher number of stops, greater delay, conflicts among through and right turning traffic etc. In this context, this study focuses on the evaluation of intersection performance using microsimulation modelling. Directional traffic count data of Bhulta intersection as a case study was used to create the base year (2017) scenario of the existing situation. Currently, this intersection faces severe performance shortages due to movement of both motorized and nonmotorized vehicles. A base model was created using simulation software (Cube Dynasim) and validated against the real-world value of directional traffic count data and approach travel speed data. Various geometrical changes made to the intersection layouts and flow data for both base year (2017) and future year (2032) were put into each of the different geometric layouts: multilane without signal, multilane with signal, roundabout, right auxiliary lane and overpass. For each of the different geometrical layouts, two indicators (intersection delay and number of stops per vehicle) were measured and analysed to find out critical issues regarding their variations. In case of all of the intersection layouts, intersection delay increases with an increase in traffic volume. Bhulta intersection has shown to perform very poorly in comparison with the proposed geometric layouts. Higher intersection delay and higher number of stops per vehicle were found to create severe performance shortages for the existing layout. Among all the proposed geometric layouts, overpass has found to be the best intersection performance. It has also been found that roundabout delivers the best performance among at-grade intersections by providing lower intersection delay and number of stops. Right auxiliary lane provides comparatively better scenario in peak hour among at-grade intersections. Also, multilane without signal scenario performs better than multilane with signal scenario. Download

Abstract: This study investigates the effectiveness of introducing project-based learning (PBL) in addition to traditional lectures, tutorials and laboratories, in helping electrical engineering students engage with contemporary industry issues and meet or exceed learning targets in a telecommunication subject within an Engineers Australia accredited curriculum. It was found that student feedback related to learning design, learning flexibility and assessments in particular improved when PBL is included. Download

Abstract: A very large car park is being built for a commercial enterprise in Sydney, Australia. The owners wanted to trial the design of a permeable car park which captures surface water for subsurface storage and sustainable use within the premises of the commercial enterprise. As is well known, Sydney is underlain by extensive residual soil which exhibits shrink-swell and other characteristics potentially damaging to pavements. Thus the concept of a permeable car park, while having many benefits, is contrary to the fundamental principle of pavement design which is to divert water away from the pavement structure, much more from a potentially expansive subgrade with poor drainage. These challenges demand a careful assessment of the subgrade in a fashion more rigorous than that required of a typical subgrade, and of any potential treatment method above that used in normal practice. This paper describes the characterization of the in-situ subgrade material undertaken by the authors to understand more clearly what the implications of a permeable car park with underground water storage may cause. Based on this understanding, the authors then propose a treatment method to produce a stabilized subgrade for the car park pavement, one that would achieve the desired properties of strength, volume stability and low permeability. Download

Abstract: The soil arching mechanism predominantly governs the load transfer mechanism of geosynthetic reinforced column-supported embankments. An extensive amount of literature is available examining the arching mechanism within the embankment fill over a grid of columns arranged in a rectangular pattern. However, the research relevant for load transfer mechanism over a grid of columns arranged in a triangular pattern is scarce, despite both triangular and rectangular patterns are widely used in practice. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the mechanism of soil arching in an embankment supported by columns in a triangular pattern using 3D numerical models based on the finite element method. Also, a comparison between the load transfer mechanisms in triangular and rectangular grids of columns is presented. Based on these results, a visual boundary of the soil arch above a grid of columns was developed. Results from this study clearly show that columns experience lower settlements and the geosynthetic reinforcement was less effective when the column arrangement is in a triangular pattern, compared to a square arrangement of columns. Download